Micro Hydro Power: Small Hydroelectric Generator For Off-Grid Homes

As people are becoming more aware of their impact on the environment, there has recently been a significant focus on the use of energy that comes from sustainable and natural sources.

A large number of people are now choosing a more ethical approach to energy, getting their energy needs from natural resources such as the sun and the wind.

Micro Hydro Power Small Hydroelectric Generator For Off-Grid Homes

The use of resources and the emission of pollutants are both cut down as a result.

The push toward renewable energy sources is so strong that several governments, to stimulate the construction of solar electrical PV, have established incentives in the form of tax refunds and electricity buyback programs.

These programs are designed to encourage the construction of solar photovoltaic PV.

In some regions, the installation of home wind turbines is also a viable alternative, and the use of hybrid solar-wind power systems is becoming an increasingly common practice.

But what part can hydro-energy play in all of this? And this is a viable power option for your home?

If you are interested in making the switch to more renewable energy then you have come to the right place.

This article will cover everything you need to know about micro-hydro power for homes and workplaces.

Keep reading to see if this is a viable power option for you and your needs.

How Does Hydropower Work?

The concept and function of hydropower are pretty simple to understand.

The force exerted by the water as it passes through the hydroelectric generator affects the impeller of the turbine, which in turn turns a generator to provide electrical power.

The process of collecting energy from water that is either moving or flowing is sometimes referred to as hydropower, which is the same thing as hydro-energy.

The phrases can be used to refer to power created by fresh water in addition to power created by saltwater.

The generation of hydroelectricity requires the placement of an impediment in the flow of water that is already in motion.

Following this step, the water is guided into channels and forced to fall.

This is the last step in the process of converting the potential energy of the water into kinetic energy.

After the energy has been captured, it is next extracted through the use of a turbine.

The use of hydropower may be used in an extremely broad range of scenarios.

There is no limit to the amount of power that may be generated; it can range from a few watts to several gigawatts.

The Three Gorges Dam in China houses the largest power plant in the world, which is run by hydroelectricity.

On the nameplate of the generator is written the startling capacity of 22 gigawatts, which is a lot of power.

Large-scale hydroelectric projects can power not only certain towns and cities but potentially the entirety of the country.

The various hydropower generation projects can be classified as falling into one of the following categories:

  • The phrase “pico hydro energy” refers to projects that have a capacity of five kilowatts or less and are classified as “micro hydropower” by the International Hydropower Association.
  • The phrase “micro-hydro” refers to power outputs ranging from 5 to 100 kilowatts, depending on the size of the system.
  • Small-scale hydropower plants are those that have generation capacities of 10 megawatts or less.
  • To define large-scale hydroelectric projects, those with outputs of 10 megawatts or more are used.

Numerous nations’ economies would collapse without the usage of hydropower, which is why more and more nations are turning to this resource.

As an example, Norway gets more than 98 percent of its entire energy production from hydropower.

Even in this day and age, hydropower remains one of the least expensive ways to create electricity.

In addition to this, the energy that is harvested is completely renewable, unlike a lot of other energy sources we use.

Because of something called the water cycle, the globe that we live in is always getting new supplies of clean water.

There is no emission of carbon dioxide during the process of converting the kinetic energy that comes from flowing water into electrical energy either, meaning that we are not harming the environment too much with this energy source.

The pace at which freshwater flows varies throughout the year though, meaning that the energy that is generated is not always consistent.

Because of this, several kinds of turbines may be used to extract energy, with some being more suited than others depending on the head of water and the fluid that is being considered.

The head of the water is a measurement of the amount of energy that it holds due to the hydrostatic pressure that it exerts.

In the context of hydropower, it is a measurement of the height that is going to be accessible above the turbine.

Another important consideration is the volume of the flow.

The term “flow rate” refers to the amount of water that travels past a certain point in a certain area within a specified length of time.

The height of the water there as well as the speed at which it is traveling will play a role in determining the type of turbine that will be utilized there.

This decision will be made after taking both of these factors into consideration.

Can I Use Hydropower In My Home?

We can assume that a hydroelectric turbine with a capacity of between 5 and 10 kilowatts is enough for supplying energy to single-family homes, farms, and small enterprises.

A turbine that has a rating of 10 kW or less is considered to be part of a micro-hydro system.

The majority of the time, the type of turbine known as an impulse turbine is the one that is employed with micro hydropower.

Examples of this type of turbine are the Pelton Wheel and the Turgo Wheel.

The turbine that you get will determine how much power you can generate using your micro-hydro system.

There are forms of turbines with helical blades that can work in water that is both very shallow and very slow flowing.

These turbines may be found in certain types of hydroelectric plants.

The motor rotor turbine, for instance, may make use of water running at speeds as slow as two miles per hour.

One of the advantages of utilizing hydropower is that it may be put to use in pump storage projects.

These projects got their start because of the rising demand for electricity during peak hours; their ultimate objective is to satisfy that requirement.

It is essential to take into consideration the fact that the quantity of power that we consume fluctuates at different times of the day.

Energy storage that is provided by pumps functions as a buffer during times of relative calm, such as when the electricity demand is low and there is an abundance of power available in the system.

At certain times throughout the year, water is transferred from a reservoir that is situated at a lower elevation to a reservoir that is situated at a higher height.

This may be performed by drawing electricity from the grid and turning the turbine into a pump by operating it opposite from how it is typically operated.

Because water is being pumped out of the reservoir, both the water level and the amount of water that can be stored there have grown as a result.

After this, the excess water is put to use at periods of peak energy demand, which can happen at any point throughout the day and can vary from place to place.

The water that was pumped back may then be utilized, along with the water that is already there and the water that is coming in, to power the turbines at their full capacity.

Drawbacks Of Hydropower

Despite its many positive attributes, hydropower is not without its share of drawbacks as well.

For instance, to capture power, particularly on a large scale, the construction of dams, which is a very time-consuming and resource-intensive enterprise, is necessary.

The region upstream of a flowing body of water will be inundated if a dam is constructed over the body of water.

This indicates that the natural environment will be destroyed, and not only will the habitats of plants and animals be disrupted, but also the humans who now reside in the region will need to be evacuated.

The headwaters of the river are home to a large number of distinct fish species, all of which are actively reproducing.

Their path of travel is disrupted when a dam is built in its location.

However, this problem may be helped by the incorporation of fish ladders within the structure.

In a similar vein, there are a great many kinds of freshwater fish that are unable to go downstream owing to the barrier.

This prevents them from reproducing and spreading their species.

The capacity of the dam may decrease over time as a result of the buildup of sand, debris, and wood that is rotting.

In addition to this, the plantation that has been left to wither upstream of the barrier is also a factor in the creation of gases.

In conclusion, the building of a significant dam has the potential to alter the natural water table in the areas that are downstream of the dam.

It is essential to emphasize that the building of large-scale hydropower projects in the present day is difficult due to the rigorous environmental regulations that are now in effect.

As a result of this, it is desirable to have a lot of run-of-the-river systems that are on a smaller size as opposed to a chosen handful that is on a bigger scale.

Water Turbines For Homes

Water Turbines For Homes

The run-of-the-river systems involve diverting some of the water from a river or stream into pipelines, which then carry the water to a power plant.

This water is channeled via a turbine that is housed in the powerhouse, and it is this turbine that is responsible for producing energy.

The point at which the water is drawn from the river or stream is situated at a considerably higher height than the powerhouse, which can be found at a much lower level.

Even though their return on investment is smaller than that of large-scale projects, run-of-the-river systems are generally considered to be ecologically friendly.

Another benefit of tunnel delivery schemes is that they are simple to construct on commission and can be finished in a matter of days or weeks, in contrast to large-scale projects, the construction of which might take many years to complete.

Now, let’s have a look at the assessment of the hydropower available at a certain place.

A straightforward equation may be used to calculate the total amount of power that a turbine is capable of extracting from its source.

  • P is equal to Nu x Rho x Q xG x H in the formula.

This looks pretty confusing, but once you know what the letters and symbols mean, the equation is pretty easy to work out.

  • P is the output in watts
  • Nu is the dimensionless efficiency of the turbine
  • Water’s density, measured in kilograms per cubic meter, is denoted by the symbol Rho.
  • The flow rate, expressed in cubic meters per second, is denoted by Q.
  • In this equation, G represents the acceleration that is caused by gravity
  • H represents the height difference in meters between the intake and the exit.

Can I Use A Water Turbine To Power My Home?

Any sort of renewable or “alternative” energy-producing system is capable of powering a home; however, the size of the system required to do so is dictated by the quantity of energy, measured in kilowatt-hours, that the home uses (kWh).

The very first thing that has to be done is research into how much energy a house uses over a year.

After adding up the power ratings of all of the home’s appliances, you should multiply the resulting total amount of watts by the estimated number of hours that each appliance will be used during the year.

This will provide an estimate of the annual energy consumption for the home.

Because of both of these considerations, we do not advise employing this tactic in your business if you are looking to switch to a more environmentally friendly power.

To begin, the quantity that is used is merely an estimate, and you might end up needing far more or less than you thought.

Second, the assessment of certain pieces of household machinery could be difficult.

For example, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, refrigerators, and freezers all include onboard compressor motors that start and stop in cycles according to the temperature target settings.

These cycles keep the internal temperature at the desired level.

The rating that is printed on the motor’s nameplate does not take into consideration the fact that the surge currents of a motor can be up to three times higher than the current that the motor draws when it is operating.

In addition, if your Power Factor is low, you can fall victim to the common misconception that Watts is always equivalent to Volts multiplied by Amperes.

This is an inaccurate assumption. In DC circuits, this phenomenon rarely occurs, although it does in AC circuits.

When you know how many kilowatt-hours your home used in the previous year, you will be able to calculate the ideal rating for your turbine.

It is estimated that the average single-family home in the United States uses 11,000-kilowatt-hours (kWh) of power every single year.

If the water level and flow do not change, a hydroelectric turbine with a capacity of 5 kW has the potential to produce the following:

  • The number 43,800 kWh is calculated by multiplying 5 kWh by the number of hours in a year, which is 8760.

To put this into perspective, a solar power plant that has a capacity of 5-kilowatt hours (kWh) would generate around 9125 kWh a year.

Even when large system losses due to cabling and fluctuations in water flow are taken into consideration, hydropower has the potential to beat solar power in a home environment by a significant margin.

Power Output Of Hydropower

A hydroelectric generator will always produce the maximum amount of watts feasible if there is no change in either the height of the water column or the speed of the river.

If the load is less than the hydro output, then the additional power that is created needs to be used for something, and it may be anything!

The flow of energy can return to the grid if the system in question is linked to the grid.

If it is not linked to the grid, the power has to be transferred to a false load, which most frequently takes the form of water or air heater components.

If it is not connected to the grid, the power cannot be used.

Do I Need Batteries For This Power Source?

If there is a consistent supply of water, there is no need for you to have batteries.

On the other hand, if the system is already linked to the grid, then it could be a good idea to have a few batteries.

If there is an interruption in the supply of energy, the system will become disconnected from the grid, and as a result, it will no longer be able to provide power to the residents.

This is done automatically to prevent a situation known as “islanding,” which takes place when independent generation systems feedback into the grid.

Batteries allow you to still have power if this happens.

Micro Pumped Storage – What Is It?

Micro Pumped Storage - What Is It?

Micro pumped storage is a fantastic idea that may be used in a variety of different contexts.

Imagine if you lived next to a large body of water, such as a lake or pond, and there was a slope that led up to a higher level near your home.

To eventually live off the grid, you have 8 kW of solar panels installed on the roof of your home.

Because you are concerned about the health of the environment, you are making an effort to prevent utilizing a sizable battery bank.

These battery banks have a limited lifespan and come at a very high cost.

Despite this, the solar panels that are installed on your roof do not create any electricity after the sun goes down.

Building a system that uses pumped hydro for energy storage is one possible solution to the problem.

When there is an abundance of electricity available during the daytime from solar panels, water is pumped from a lake to a reservoir that is located at a higher height.

The reservoir is positioned at a higher elevation than the lake.

The water that is held in the reservoir is drained at night when there is no output from the sun.

This is done so that the water may be gravity-fed through the turbine, which is now working as a generator.

This setup may, in all intents and purposes, stand-in for a bank of chemical batteries; yet, it does not generate any pollution and does not use up any limited resources in the process.

How Much Flow Is Needed For Power?

You could have a stream that cuts through your land, but you need to consider whether or not it has a head or a flow that is powerful enough to supply you with the necessary amount of energy.

We’ll guide you through the easiest ways to work out the flow, but if you want the most accurate readings possible, it’s in your best interest to hire a professional surveyor.

If you are going to spend many thousand dollars on a micro hydropower system for our house, then you want to make sure that it’s done right.

Measuring The Water Head

Install a segment of hose that will stretch from the point at the highest elevation where the stream begins to the point at the lowest elevation where the planned turbine will be positioned.

This will allow water to flow from the point at the highest elevation to the point at the lowest elevation.

At the bottom end, attach a pressure gauge, and then read off the pressure in pounds per square inch (psi).

It is reasonable to believe that there are 2.31 feet of head for every pascal of pressure.

Measuring The Flow Rate

The easiest way to find this out is by filling a bucket to a certain capacity while simultaneously keeping track of the length of time it takes to accomplish this task (provided that the amount of water flow is not greater than that of a stream or a small river).

This information must be converted into gallons per minute; therefore, the query for flow should be as follows:

  • The flow rate in gallons per minute may be calculated by taking 60 and multiplying it by the bucket’s capacity in gallons.

To give you an example, it takes fifteen seconds to fill a bucket that has a capacity of ten gallons. This would mean that the water flow is 40 gallons per minute.

Can I Use Hydro Power In My Off-Grid Home?

Even though we highly recommend having a professional installer handle the entirety of a project, beginning with design and going all the way through to completion, many homeowners have built and implemented their systems on their own.

However, employing a professional eliminates the possibility of making mistakes that might wind up costing a lot of money.

When compared to solar or wind turbines, micro-hydropower systems that are deployed in residential settings have a significantly greater efficiency rate.

They have a life span that is equivalent to the original, if not longer, and create a greater and more constant output.

If you are looking to live off-grid and use completely naturally generated energy, then hydropower may be a great option for you.

How Much Will A Micro Hydro Cost?

One thousand to three thousand dollars is the usual cost associated with purchasing a micro hydropower plant with one kilowatt of production capacity.

The range of micro-hydro power is extremely extensive, starting at 1 kW and going all the way up to 100 kW; so, the variation is pretty significant.

The overall cost of a specific project can be impacted by several different elements, such as the quantity of piping and concrete that is necessary, as well as the number of distinct projects, each of which has a unique head and flow value.


While installing micro hydropower into your home can be a pretty expensive undertaking, the benefits typically outweigh the negatives, especially if you are interested in living off the grid.

Hydropower is an excellent renewable energy source that is ideal for those who are more eco-conscious and want to lower their impact on the environment.

If you want to add this system to your home, then it is recommended that you get a surveyor in to make sure that it is possible before you spend thousands of dollars on the new system.

Joe Danner